Saturday, April 20, 2024

Neurological Disorders That Affect Vision

Advanced Technology For Ocular Degeneration Care

Neurological Vision Disorders | Occupational Therapy: Neuro Vision’s Impact on Function

Technology is key in advancing our understanding of neurodegenerative eye diseases at a tissue and cellular level. For example, by using noninvasive, high-resolution optical coherence tomography , we can evaluate the structural changes of the retina in mice and assess how the retina changes along the continuum of the disease and treatment. Early research indicates that OCT measurements can serve as biomarkers for the early recognition and progression of neurological conditions, though further research is needed before such techniques can be fully utilized in a clinical setting.

The UT Southwestern ophthalmology research labs are well-equipped with the cutting-edge instrumentation necessary for elucidating the cause of disease and identifying potential treatments. Our departments instrumentation includes multi-laser flow cytometers with cell-sorting technology for enrichment/analysis studies, focal and full field electroretinography for noninvasive inner/outer retina health measurements, optokinetic reflex monitoring for visual acuity determination, and mass spectrometers for analysis of complex lipid and protein samples.

To discuss your condition with one of our ophthalmology providers, please call or request an appointment.

The Spectrum Of Vision Impairment Caused By Pediatric Neurological Injury

Injury to the central nervous system is the leading cause of vision impairment in children in Western countries. Known as cortical, or cerebral, visual impairment , the usual cause is perinatal hypoxia/ischemia, although developmental brain disorders such as lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, and porencephaly can be etiological. Since injury rarely affects the visual cortex or optic radiations alone, afflicted children often experience disruption of other aspects of neurological functioning, with seizures, mental retardation, disturbed attention, and cerebral palsy commonly occurring in tandem with disturbances of vision.

Considerable debate has emerged over the past several years regarding the terminology that should be applied to children with vision impairment caused by neurological injury. Cortical visual impairment, cerebral visual impairment, neurological visual impairment, and retrogeniculate visual impairmentall are terms with enthusiastic supporters. Common to all these terms is the presence of impaired visual acuity. None of these terms addresses other problems that could cause higher disorders of vision processing.

Common Neurologic Disorders Have Ocular Symptoms Affecting Vision Including Dry Eye And Painful Eye Movement

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Several million Americans have neurologic diseases and disorders that affect vision, causing ocular symptoms that can range from dry eye to double vision to legal blindness.

Neurologic disorders specific to the eye include optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy and primary glaucomatous optic nerve disease, while systemic neurologic diseases such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers diseases have ocular manifestations related to deterioration of the brain. Patients after stroke also often have visual problems stemming from neurologic damage.

Steven Feldon, MD, Ocular Surgery News Neuro-Sciences Section Member, said many neurologic diseases manifest with ocular symptoms because so much of the human brain is involved in vision and visual processing.

Since about one-third of our brain deals with processing vision in one way or another, almost any diffuse disease of the brain is going to affect vision, Dr. Feldon said.

Optic neuritis

Optic neuritis occurs most commonly in young white women. It is diagnosed clinically by history and by the presence of an afferent pupillary defect, a decrease in visual acuity, a change in the visual field and a swelling of the optic nerve, Dr. Feldon said.

Treatment can include prescription of immunomodulatory agents for multiple sclerosis, such as Avonex , Betaseron or Copaxone .

Ischemic optic neuropathy

Systemic diseases


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Major Causes Of Stroke Include:

  • high blood pressure
  • blurred vision, double vision, or decreased vision
  • dizziness, loss of balance, or loss of coordination
  • severe headache, stiff neck, or facial pain
  • difficulty speaking or understanding speech
  • confusion or problems with memory, spatial orientation, or perception and
  • nausea and vomiting.

If you are experiencing these symptoms, seek immediate medical attention. Receiving treatment within three hours of suffering a stroke is shown to dramatically improve your chances of a successful recovery.

There is no treatment for patients who have lost vision due to a stroke. However, you may regain some of the peripheral vision lost from a stroke. Your ophthalmologist will give you a thorough eye examination to determine how the stroke has affected your vision. He or she will talk to you about what to expect over time and can help you find resources and training to make the most of your remaining vision.

What Kinds Of Activities Are Done In Vision Therapy And How Do They Help Someone Who Has Experienced A Traumatic Brain Injury


When working with a TBI patient in a neuro optometric rehabilitation program that includes vision therapy, our eye doctor and therapists will focus on the primary diagnosis that the patient is struggling with. We utilize a whole toolbox that includes therapy, syntonics, and prism lenses to improve the visual function and reduce symptoms of the patient.

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Is Migraine A Neurological Disorder

Migraine is a type of headache, which is the most common neurological disorder. It has incapacitating neurological symptoms that include throbbing pain. Migraine sufferers have an improperly-working nervous system that overreacts to stimuli which leads to an unusual wave of brain activity that causes headache. Most migraine patients have a problem with the trigeminal nerve, which sets off a slowly moving wave of electrochemical activity across the brains surface. These stimuli are irrational signals from other parts of the nervous system, although sometimes symptoms occur spontaneously without a trigger. Sometimes auras occur with migraines that can include visual phenomena, vision loss, pins and needles sensations, uncontrollable jerking, and more.

What Is A Neuro

Ophthalmologists treat eye and visual problems, and neurologists deal with issues of the brain. A neuro-ophthalmologist is in the middle, handling brain issues that affect vision.

Neuro-ophthalmologists treat many vision disorders in addition to those associated with MS. For instance, stroke, aneurysms and brain tumors can all present with visual problems.

The UM Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research works closely with neuro-ophthalmologists at the University of Maryland School of Medicines Department of Ophthalmology to treat visual disorders in our patients.

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How Do The Eyes And Brain Work Together

Our eyes operate like two cameras and its up to our brain to process the images. Images the eye sees hit the retina in the back of the eyes. Information is passed from the retina up to the brain through the optic nerves. When the information arrives at the visual center in the brain the brain must take the two slightly different images coming from each eye and merge them together so that we see only a single image.

Do you have questions about your eyesight? Is it time for your regular eye exam? Please at Central Valley Eye Medical Group at 244-9907 to make an appointment.

Open Access License / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Vision in Parkinson’s Disease – Keynote from 2021 UF Parkinson’s Disease Symposium

This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License . Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor. The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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Do You Offer Payment Plans

Payment plans can be used to access consultations, treatment and surgery at all Vision Eye Institute Clinics and Vision Hospital Group day surgeries.Vision Eye Institute patients can access a plan to suit their needs through one of the following options.*

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    The Importance Of Visual Therapy

    Visual symptoms resulting from neurological damage may seem obvious, but many problems go undetected or misdiagnosed by standard eye exams. Its imperative to work with a qualified visual therapist and developmental optometrist specializing in neuro-optometric rehabilitation to thoroughly investigate your condition.

    Doctors certified in neuro-optometry and visual rehabilitation at OCVT evaluate patients conditions, going far beyond eye sight and health, to provide in-depth, accurate diagnoses and treatment rehabilitation plans. OCVT doctors will evaluate general vision, eye and brain coordination, and integrations . With neuro-optometric rehabilitation treatment plans in place, patients can reduce visual symptoms impairment and improve everyday function.

    In addition to these services, OCVT is proud to work with Texas only FNORA professional . Dr. Briana Larson brings advanced clinical abilities and scientific knowledge to her practice, specializing in helping patients recover from visual-cognitive disorders.

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    Treatment For Neurological Vision Loss

    • treating the underlying brain injury. If the brain can recover from its injury, the persons vision may also improve
    • wearing an eye patch this can relieve double vision
    • options for managing poor visual clarity include using large print, writing with a thick black pen on a white background to heighten contrast, increasing magnification and ensuring adequate and appropriate lighting
    • a person with a visual field defect can learn to use their eyes and head in a scanning fashion, which means moving the eyes and head back and forth to make sure they look for objects in their blind spot.
    • determine the ability to move freely and safely around a range of environments and establish appropriate mobility goals
    • determine the extent of vision loss and impact on independent travel skills
    • determine the impact of other impairments, such as memory, balance, attention and concentration on mobility
    • determine the persons ability to walk confidently on different surfaces
    • develop skills for using public transport
    • evaluate the need for a mobility aid
    • educate the person, their family and rehabilitation professionals about the nature and impact of the vision loss.

    Major Side Effects Of Corticosteroids Include:

    Sudden Vision Loss

    Discuss the complications of corticosteroid use with your ophthalmologist.

    In some cases, corticosteroids do not fully resolve the condition. In these cases, your ophthalmologist may recommend optic nerve decompression surgery. If your ophthalmologist thinks this a valuable treatment option for you, discuss the benefits and risks together before deciding on surgery.

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    Ischemic Optic Neuropathy: When Nerves Need Blood

    Your nerves are conduits for messengers, and they require a lot of blood to do their work. If you’ve ever sat with your crossed legs for too long and felt pins and needles take hold, you know this firsthand.

    When nerves do not get the blood they need, bad things happen. When the optic nerve is starved of blood flow, it’s called ischemic optic neuropathy, and it can permanently damage vision.

    Several types of blood vessels support and nourish the optic nerve. Each can fail in a different way. In general, researchers recognize two main forms of ischemic optic neuropathy .

    • Anterior ION: A lack of blood flow causes the optic nerve head to swell.
    • Posterior ION: Blood flow remains a problem, but there is no swelling.

    Both conditions are eye emergencies, and if you have them, you need immediate treatment.

    You will develop sudden vision loss in one or both eyes, and you will not feel pain. During an exam, your doctor might notice that your pupils are not responding to light, and your optic nerve might look unusual.

    Since ION is a disease of the blood vessels, and damage to the eyes is a side effect of that damage, you are at higher risk of the condition if you have risk factors for heart disease. Those risk factors include the following:

    • High blood pressure
    • Swollen arteries in your head

    What To Expect At The Neuro

    Before you go to a neuro-ophthalmology appointment, you should make sure that you have:

    • Your current eyeglasses and prescription
    • Relevant medical records
    • Copies of any MRIs, CT scans, or other eye tests

    Youâll likely have your eyes dilated during your visit, so you should have someone come with you who can drive you home.

    During your appointment, the neuro-ophthalmologist will do a thorough eye exam, go over your medical history and ask about the symptoms youâre having. The neuro-ophthalmologist may:

    • Test your vision and eye movement
    • Check your color vision and field vision
    • Examine your eyes with a slit lamp microscope
    • Assess your eye pressure
    • Perform a partial or complete neurological exam to test coordination and strength
    • Review any scans that you brought in for your appointment

    The exam may take a few hours. When itâs done, the neuro-ophthalmologist will go over your diagnosis and discuss treatment options. They may also order additional testing if necessary.

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    Stroke: Brain Clots Change Vision

    You may know that double vision is one symptom of a stroke. And you may know that strokes are incredibly common, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says someone has a stroke in the United States every 40 seconds. But you may not know that living through a stroke can change your vision permanently.

    A stroke stems from a blood clot within the brain. It plugs vital blood from moving to the cells that need it, and they begin to die. If your stroke is centered on the portion of the brain responsible for vision and image processing, you may be left with deficits from the cells that died during your stroke.

    The National Stroke Association says about two-thirds of people have vision changes after a stroke. They can include:

    • Vision loss. You may have gaps in the center or side of your visual field, and they will vary in size depending on the severity of the damage done.
    • Shifts in perception. You may struggle to see and understand depth and colors. You may not recognize items you once knew well. And you may find it hard to focus on items on one side of your body.
    • Dry eyes. Blinking can be difficult, and without a layer of tears, the surface of your eye can dry and harden.
    • Double vision. You may see two of the same item, even when only one is present.

    Strokes move quickly, but medications can help to soften the clot and ease the damage you will endure during the episode. If you are given quick treatment and the damage is minor, your brain may heal.

    Schedule An Appointment At Amplify Eyecare Chattanooga The Leading Provider Of Vision Therapy And Neuro Optometric Rehabilitation In The Chattanooga Area

    Neuro Optometric Vision Rehabilitation (Brain Injuries & Vision)

    If you have experienced a concussion, stroke, or any neurological condition and you suspect you are suffering from any of the above discussed visual dysfunctions, you may benefit from vision therapy. Call our office to schedule a neuro optometric evaluation with our neuro optometrist, Dr. Heather McBryar FCOVD. Dr. McBryar will take the time to fully understand your visual function, and if necessary will recommend vision therapy.

    Our team of vision therapists is led by Kristin Roberts COVT, who has extensive experience as a certified vision therapist. Our team of therapists will work with you under the guidance of Dr. McBryar to provide you with the best possible care and results. For more information about vision therapy or to schedule a neuro optometric eye exam, call .

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    Moving Through Eye Challenges

    Reading about disorders like this is not easy, especially when many of them cause permanent damage. It’s important to understand that you do not have to take on these challenges alone.

    Opticians, ophthalmologists, and other eye experts are adept at both examining eyes and developing treatments for deficits. A visit to an expert like this could result in solutions you would never have thought of on your own.

    And a relationship with an eye doctor could help you to prevent some of these issues from ever developing, so you can preserve your vision throughout your life.

    If you do not have an expert on your side now, it’s time to start searching.

    Reasons To See A Neuro

    Your eye doctor may refer you to a neuro-ophthalmologist if you:

    Lose Visual Acuity

    A loss of visual acuity may happen for several reasons, including uncorrected refractive errors, retina issues, problems with the optic nerves, and problems inside your skull, such as a tumor or aneurysm. The neuro-ophthalmologist can diagnose the issue and recommend treatment options.

    Have Trouble Moving Your Eyes

    Issues that keep your eyes from moving properly include cranial nerve palsy and myasthenia gravis. These issues make it difficult to see. You should also visit with a neuro-ophthalmologist if your eyes begin to shake suddenly, as this can be a sign of nystagmus a condition that can cause problems with vision, depth perception, and balance and coordination.

    Have Tumors Compressing Visual Pathways

    Even if you donât notice any changes in your vision, but you have been diagnosed with a pituitary tumor thatâs pressing on your optic nerves, you should see a neuro-ophthalmologist to ensure that you donât experience vision loss.

    Have Pressure in Your Head

    Pressure building in your head can lead to the swelling of your optic nerves and, eventually, vision loss. It can be caused by brain tumors and also a condition called pseudotumor cerebri. A neuro-ophthalmologist can diagnose the cause and treat it.

    Develop Uneven Pupils

    Any sudden changes in the size of your pupils may indicate a serious problem, such as a brain aneurysm, and should be addressed right away.

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